Emma Goldman, Anarchism & War Resistance + Against Discouragement
First Program: Howard Zinn: Emma Goldman, Anarchism & War Resistance
Emma Goldman is largely an unknown figure today. She deserves wider recognition. She was born in Lithuania and died in 1940. She spent many years as an organizer in the United States. She was a major anarchist thinker and activist as well as a passionate advocate for women's rights. Anarchism today is mostly viewed negatively. It's seen as a synonym for disorder and chaos. Few recognize it as a political philosophy rooted in the ideals of the Enlightenment. Noam Chomsky calls it "the libertarian wing of socialism." Anarchism not only opposes the institutions of state coercion and violence, it questions the very legitimacy of the state.
Second Program: Howard Zinn: Against Discouragement
It wasn't that long ago when the United States labeled the African National Congress as a terrorist organization. Its leader, Nelson Mandela languished for years in prison. Then because of massive grassroots movement and international support through boycott and divestment, Mandela is released and South Africa frees itself from its apartheid regime. Throughout history people have overcome tremendous odds to advance the cause of justice. Take the civil rights movement. What were African Americans up against? The entire apparatus of power from the courthouse to the statehouse was controlled by segregationists. And the federal government? Asleep at the wheel. Nevertheless, blacks organized and fought back against tremendous odds. The key to the struggle was collective action. There's an African proverb that captures that spirit, "If you want to go quickly, go alone. If you want to go far, go together."
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