The Propaganda Model
In liberal democratic societies, it has long been understood that the use of force to control the population is generally not a viable option. Therefore, controlling what people think is critical. Thus, an elaborate system of propaganda is needed. For that system to be effective it must appear invisible. In totalitarian states there is no ambiguity. Citizens know they are getting the party line. But in countries like the U.S., where ownership is private and formal censorship is absent, there is an appearance of a free flow of information. However, that flow passes through successive filters, leaving only the cleansed residue fit to print.
Edward Herman was an economist who taught at the Wharton School at the University of Pennsylvania. He was also highly skilled at exposing media lies, fabrications and propaganda. He was the author of many books, including Beyond Hypocrisy, The Real Terror Network, The Politics of Genocide and The Myth of the Liberal Media. He was author with Noam Chomsky of Manufacturing Consent, one of the most influential books on the media ever written. He passed away in November 2017 at the age of 92.